Department of Kinesiology

Applied Neuromechanics


Joint injury occurs when forces exceed the capacity of the active and passive stabilizing structures and may result from excessive biomechanical loads in the presence of adequate muscle function, or from muscular insufficiency under otherwise functionally tolerable loads. The primary focus of our laboratory research agenda has been to explore the sex dependent factors that reduce neuromuscular and biomechanical function, leading to joint instability and/or injury risk.

Current Research Age Skeletal Maturity Hormones Fatigue Anatomical Alignment Joint Laxity Neuromuscular Function Increased Injury Risk Biomechanical Function Functional Joint Instability

Age/Skeletal Maturity

Manuscripts Published
  • Williams, K (2004). What's physical education got to do with it? JOPERD, 75, 35-39.
  • Williams, K., Gill, D.L., Kovacs, C.R., & Williams, L. (2003). Intralimb coordination of older adults during stair climbing and descent: Fallers and nonfallers. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 45, 233-255.
Manuscripts In Press
  • Williams, K., Mustian, K., & Kovacs (in press). A home-based intervention to improve balance, gait and self-confidence in older adults. Activities, Adaptation and Aging.
  • Kovacs, C., & Williams, K., Changes in Obstacle Avoidance Capabilities in Healthy Older Adults Following Sensory Training (in press).
Manuscripts In Review
  • Williams, K., Hinton, V.A., Bories, T., Kovacs, C.. Age differences in shared task performance: Walking and talking (in review)
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Sex Hormones & Joint Laxity

Manuscripts Published
  • Shultz SJ, Sander TC, Kirk SE, Johnson ML, Perrin DH. Relationship Between Sex Hormones and Anterior Knee Laxity Across the Menstrual Cycle. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise. 2004; 36(7): 1165-1174
  • Shultz SJ, Carcia CR, Perrin DH. Knee Joint Laxity Affects Muscle Activation Patterns at the Knee. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 2003; 33(8):A20
  • Olmsted LC, Carcia CR, Hertel J, and Shultz SJ. The effect of functional ankle instability on performance of the star excursion balance test. Journal of Athletic Training 2003;37:501-506
  • Demeritt KM, Shultz SJ, Gansneder BM, Docherty CL & Perrin DH. Functional Ankle Instability Does Not Effect Lower Extremity Functional Performance. Journal of Athletic Training. 2003;37:507-511
Manuscripts In Press
  • Shultz SJ, Sander TC, Kirk SE, Perrin DH. Sex Differences In Knee Joint Laxity Change Across The Female Menstrual Cycle. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness (In Press)
  • Carcia CR, Shultz SJ, Granata KP, Gansneder BM, Perrin DH. Knee Ligament Behavior Following a Controlled Loading Protocol Does Not Differ by Menstrual Cycle Day. Clinical Biomechanics (In Press)
Abstracts Published / Presented
  • Perrin DH, Kirk SE, Sander TC, Shultz SJ. Minimum Serum Hormone Levels at Menses Predict the Magnitude of Change in Knee Joint Laxity Across the Menstrual Cycle. Journal of Athletic Training. 2004; 39(2):S13
  • Shultz SJ, ML Johnson, SE Kirk, TC Sander, DH Perrin. Sex Hormones Explain More Of The Variance In Anterior Knee Laxity Across The Menstrual Cycle When A Time Delay Is Considered. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2004; 36(5):S36
  • Perrin DH, SE Kirk, TC Sander, SJ Shultz. Sex Differences In Knee Joint Laxity Change Across The Female Menstrual Cycle. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2004; 36(5):S151
  • Shultz SJ, Perrin DH (FACSM), Sander TC, Kirk SE. Knee Laxity But Not Compliance Increases Across The Menstrual Cycle. Medicine Science in Sports & Exercise. 2003; 35(5):S81
Professional Presentations
  • Shultz S.J. - National Athletic Trainers´ Association 54th Annual Meeting and Clinical Symposium; Baltimore MD "Advances in ACL Injury Management: Influence of Sex Hormones on Knee Joint Function", June 2004
  • Shultz S.J. - 2002 University of Virginia General Clinical Research Center Scientific Symposium; Charlottesville Oct 2002 "Gender, Hormones and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Compliance"
Funding
  • "Gender, Sex Specific Hormones and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Compliance" National Institutes of Health (1 RO3 AR47178-01) Perrin D.H., Shultz S.J. Kirk S.E., Johnson M.L., Sander, T.C.. Compliance.
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Anatomical Alignment

Manuscripts Published
  • Rose H.M., Shultz S.J., Arnold B.L., Gansneder B.M. & Perrin D.H. Orthotic Intervention Does Not Effect Muscular Response Times and Activation Patterns at the Knee. Journal of Athletic Training. 2002;37(2).
  • Shultz SJ, Carcia CR, Perrin DH. Knee Joint Laxity Affects Muscle Activation Patterns in the Healthy Knee. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2004; 14(4):475-483
Manuscripts In Review
  • Cote KP, Brunet ME, Gansneder BM, Shultz SJ. Pronated and Supinated Foot Postures Effect both Static and Dynamic Postural Stability. Journal of Athletic Training (In Review)
Abstracts Published / Presented
  • Windley TC, Kulas AS, Schmitz RJ, Perrin DH, Shultz SJ. Tibiofemoral Angle, Not Q-angle, is Related to Frontal Plane Lower Extremity Kinematics During a Weight-Bearing Perturbation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2004; 36(5):S345-6
  • Windley TC, Kulas AS, Shultz SJ, Perrin DH, Schmitz RJ. Navicular Drop Predicts Transverse Plane Knee Moments in a Single-Leg Weight-Bearing Perturbation. Journal of Athletic Training. 2004; 39(2):S30
  • Shultz S.J., Carcia C.R., Gansneder B.G., Perrin D.H. Lower Extremity Limb Alignment Effects Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Weight Bearing. Journal of Athletic Training. . 2002; 37(2):S28
  • Hargrave MD, Carcia CR, Gansneder BM, Shultz SJ. Subtalar Pronation Does Not Affect Impact Forces and Absorption During a Single Leg Forefoot Landing. Journal of Athletic Training. 2002; 38:18-23
Presentations
  • S.J. Shultz. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting; St.Louis, MO; May 2002. Mini-Symposium: "Update on ACL Injuries in the Female Athlete: Anatomical Risk Factors in ACL Injury"
Funding
  • "Effect of Lower Extremity Limb Alignment on Neuromuscular Activation Patterns" National Athletic Trainers´ Association Research and Education Foundation (2000 – 2003) S.J. Shultz; Co-Principal Investigator with David H. Perrin
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Fatigue

Manuscripts Published
  • Susco TM, Valovich TC, Gansneder BG, Shultz SJ. Balance Recovers within Twenty Minutes Following Exertion as Measured by the Balance Error Scoring System. Journal of Athletic Training. 2004; 39: 241-246
  • Moore B.D., Drouin J., Shultz S.J., and Gansneder B.M. The Effect of Gender and Fatigue on Electromechanical Delay in Elite Athletes. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2002; 12:351-360
  • Schmitz, R.J., Arnold, B.L., Perrin, D.H., Granata, K.P., Gaesser, G.A., & Gansneder, B.M. (2002) Effect of isotonic and isometric knee extension exercises on mechanical and electromyographical specificity of fatigue. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 10, 167-175.
Manuscripts In Press
  • Tripp BL, Boswell LL, Shultz SJ. Functional Fatigue Decreases Three-dimensional Multi-joint Position Reproduction Acuity in the Overhead-throwing Athlete. Journal of Athletic Training (In Press)
Manuscripts in Review
  • Carcia CR, Eggen JM, Shultz SJ. Hip Abductor Fatigue Affects Frontal Plane Landing Angle But Not Excursion During a Drop Jump. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation (In Review)
Abstracts Published / Presented
  • Martin NMG, Sanderson HL, Schmitz RJ, Perrin DH, Shultz SJ, Watson MA. Functional Fatigue Decreases Leg Spring Stiffness During Drop Landings. Journal of Athletic Training. 2004; 39(2):S113
  • Schmitz RJ, Martin NM, Sanderson HL, Perrin DH, Watson MA, Shultz SJ, Reliability and Validity of a Functional Fatigue Protocol Southeast ACSM 2004
  • Eggen JM, Carcia CR, Gansneder BM, Shultz SJ. Hip Abductor Fatigue Affects Knee Motion Following a Drop Jump. Journal of Athletic Training. 2003;38(2):S22
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Training

Manuscripts In Review
  • Sander TC, Shultz SJ, Gansneder BM, Bunker GA, Perrin DH. Conscious Muscular Contraction Increases Pre- and Post-perturbation Neuromuscular Activation. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology (In Review)
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Neuromuscular Function

Manuscripts Published
  • Drouin JM, Valovich TC, Shultz SJ, Gansneder BM, & Perrin DH. Reliability and Validity of the Biodexä System 3 Pro Isokinetic Dynamometer Velocity, Torque and Position Measurements. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2004;91:22-29
  • Schmitz, R.J., Riemann, B.L., & Thompson, T.T. (2002) Gluteus Medius Activity during Isometric Closed-Chain Hip Rotation. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 11, 179-188.
  • Schmitz, R.J., Arnold, B.L., Perrin, D.H., Granata, K.P., Gaesser, G.A., & Gansneder, B.M. (2002) Effect of isotonic and isometric knee extension exercises on mechanical and electromyographical specificity of fatigue. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 10, 167-175.
  • Shultz SJ, Perrin DH, Adams JM, Arnold BL, Gansneder BM & Granata KP. Neuromuscular Response Characteristics in Males and Females Following Knee Perturbation in a Single Leg Weight Bearing Stance. Journal of Athletic Training. 2001; 36(1):37-43
  • Shultz SJ, Perrin DH, Adams JM, Arnold BL, Gansneder BM & Granata KP. Assessment of Neuromuscular Response Characteristics at the Knee Following a Functional Perturbation. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 10(3):159-170, 2000
  • Shultz SJ & Perrin DH. Using Surface Electromyography to Assess Gender Differences in Neuromuscular Response Characteristics. Journal of Athletic Training. 1999; 34(2):165-176
Manuscripts In Press
  • Shultz, SJ, Windley, TC, Kulas, AS, Schmitz, RJ, Valovich McLeod, TC, Perrin, DH. Low Levels of Anterior Tibial Loading Enhance Knee Extensor Reflex Response Characteristics. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology (In Press)
Abstracts Published / Presented
  • Shultz SJ, Windley TC, Kulas AS, Schmitz RJ, Valovich- McLeod TC, Perrin DH. Within and Between Test Measurement Consistency Obtained From a Custom Reflex Testing Device. Journal of Athletic Training. 2004; 39(2):S116
  • Kulas AS, Windley TC, Shultz SJ, Schmitz RJ, Perrin DH Sex Differences in Neuromuscular Responses to Knee Extension Perturbations as Evidenced by Reflex Timing, Amplitude and Knee Extension Moments. Journal of Athletic Training. 2004; 39(2):S
Professional Presentations
  • Shultz S.J. – American Medical Society of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting and Clinical Symposium; Vancouver, B.C. NATA Research Lecture Exchange; "ACL Injury in the Female Athlete: Assessment of Neuromuscular Risk Factors", April 2004
  • Shultz S.J. - National Athletic Trainers´ Association 53rd Annual Meeting and Clinical Symposium; Dallas, TX "Researcher´s Forum: Quantification of Muscle Function - Electromyography", June 2002
  • Schmitz R.J. - National Athletic Trainers´ Association 53rd Annual Meeting and Clinical Symposium; Dallas, TX June, 2002 "Researcher´s Forum: Quantification of Muscle Function - Dynamometry" June 2002
Funding
  • Shultz SJ. "Effect of Knee Joint Displacement and Load on Neuromuscular Reflex Behavior: A Reliability and Validity Study". University of North Carolina at Greensboro (2003-04)
  • Valovich TC, Shultz SJ (Consultant). Neuromuscular Response Characteristics in Prepubescent Boys and Girls Following a Knee Perturbation. Warner / Fermaturo and KCOM Board of Trustees
  • Shultz SJ, Perrin DH. "Neuromuscular Response Characteristics in Males and Females Following Knee Perturbation." National Athletic Trainers´ Association Research and Education Foundation (1997 – 1999)
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Biomechanical Function

Manuscripts Published
  • Gross SM, Carcia CR, Gansneder BM, Shultz SJ. Rate of Force Application During Knee Arthrometer Measurements Affects Stiffness But Not Displacement. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 2004; 34(3):132-9
  • Schmitz, R.J., Riemann, B.L., & Thompson, T.T. (2002) Gluteus Medius Activity during Isometric Closed-Chain Hip Rotation. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 11, 179-188.
  • Riemann B.L., Schmitz R.J. Gale M.J., & McCaw S.T. (2002) Effect of ankle taping and bracing on vertical ground reaction forces during drop landings before and after treadmill jogging. Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy - 32(12):628-635.
Manuscripts In Press
  • Schmitz RJ, Shultz SJ, Kulas AS, Windley TC, Perrin DH. Kinematic Assessment and Consistency of a Functional Lower Body Perturbation. Clinical Biomechanics (In Press)
Manuscripts In Review
  • Schmitz RJ, Kulas AS, Perrin DH, Riemann BL, Shultz SJ. Sex Differences in Lower Extremity Biomechanics during Single Leg Landings. American Journal of Sports Medicine (In Review)
Abstracts Published / Presented
  • Martin NMG, Sanderson HL, Schmitz RJ, Perrin DH, Shultz SJ, Watson MA. Functional Fatigue Decreases Leg Spring Stiffness During Drop Landings. Journal of Athletic Training. 2004; 39(2):S113
  • Schmitz RJ, Shultz SJ, Kulas AS, Windley TC, Perrin DH. Kinematic Assessment and Consistency of a Functional Lower Body Perturbation. Journal of Athletic Training. 2004; 39(2):S
  • Kulas TS, RJ Schmitz, TC Windley, SJ Shultz, DH Perrin. Pilot Investigation: Sex specific effects of abdominal maneuvers on lower extremity energetics during landings. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2004; 36(5):S230
  • Sander TC, Gansneder BM, Bunker LK, Gaesser GA, Saliba EN, Perrin DH, Shultz SJ. Females Utilize Quadriceps Dominant Landing Strategies That Increase Knee Shear Forces and Internal Extension Moments. Journal of Athletic Training. 2004; 39(2):S110
Funding
  • Shultz SJ, Schmitz RJ, Perrin DH. Kinematic Analysis of Functional Knee Stability Following a Lower Extremity Perturbation. University of North Carolina at Greensboro Faculty Grant
  • Howard R.L., Schmitz RJ. Biomechanical Effects of Lower Extremity Joint Restrictions During Squatting. National Strength and Conditioning Association
Proposals in progress
  • Shultz S.J. Neuromuscular and Biomechanical Consequences of Increased Knee Laxity. National Athletic Trainers´ Association Research and Education Foundation (Anticipated Mar 1, 2005 Submission)
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Neuromechanical Stability

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Injury Risk

Funding
  • Shultz SJ. Health and Safety Issues in High School Athletics. National Federation of State High School Athletic Associations

Professional Presentations - Regional / State / Local

  • Shultz S.J. - The Distinguished Lecture Series in Sports Medicine; Hope College, Holland MI November 2002 "Strategies for Preventing Knee Injuries in Female Athletes"

Recognition or Awards for Scholarly Production

  • Nick Martin - NATA Masters Student Poster Presentation Award (Schmitz - faculty advisor)
  • Todd Sander - NATA Doctoral Student Poster Presentation Award(Shultz - faculty advisor)
  • S.J. Shultz - 2003 Freddie H. Fu, MD New Investigator Award; National Athletic Trainers Association Research & Education Foundation
  • D.H. Perrin – NATA Hall of Fall Induction June 2003
  • D.H. Perrin – Outstanding Alumni Award (Inaugural), School of Health and Human Performance, Indiana State University, 2003
  • 2001 Journal of Athletic Training Kenneth L Knight Award for Outstanding Research Manuscript - Shultz SJ, Perrin DH, Adams JM, Arnold BL, Gansneder BM & Granata KP. Neuromuscular Response Characteristics in Males & Females Following Knee Perturbation in a Single Leg Weight Bearing Stance. J Athl Train. 36(1):37-43 (Awarded June 2002)

Books, Monographs, Scripts

  • Shultz, S.J., Valovich, T.C. & Zinder, S.M. Sports Medicine Handbook. 2nd Edition. National Federation of State High School Associations: Indianapolis, IN. 2002.
  • Shultz S.J., Rudd D. & Miller DA. Revised Recommendations and Guidelines for Appropriate Medical Coverage in Intercollegiate Athletics. Written for the National Athletic Trainers´ Association: Dallas, TX. May 2003
  • Shultz, S.J., Houglum, P.A. & Perrin, D.H.. Assessment of Athletic Injuries. 2nd Edition. Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL. (In Press)
  • Shultz, S.J., Valovich, T.C. & Zinder, S.M. Sports Medicine Handbook. 3nd Edition. National Federation of State High School Associations: Indianapolis, IN. In Press.

Book Chapters

  • Williams, K., & Payne, V.G. (2003). Motor Development. In B. Mohnsen (Ed.), Concepts of physical education: What every student should know (2nd. Edition). Reston, VA: NASPE.
  • Shultz S.J. Introduction to Grant Writing and Research Funding Sources. In: Arnold B.L., Perrin D.H. & Gansneder B.G. Research in Athletic Training. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis; (In Press)
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