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DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY
312 Eberhart Building


Major / Minor Information

Courses


Robert E. Gatten, Jr., Professor and Head of Department

Professors Bates, Lutz, Stavn, Sullivan (Chancellor of UNCG); Associate Professors Cannon, Hendrickson, Henrich, Kirchoff, Lacey, Lepri, Lombardi, Rublee; Assistant Professors Katula, Leise, Stewart; Instructor Curtis; Lecturers Almeida, Burch, Horton, Pelli, Somers

Visiting Assistant Professor Baldi

Adjunct Faculty: Adjunct Professors Failla, Logan; Adjunct Clinical Professors Gay, Lipford, Steuterman; Adjunct Associate Professosr Blake, McIntosh; Adjunct Clinical Associate Professor O'Connor; Adjunct Assistant Professors Bever, Bond, Curtis, Pratap; Adunct Clinical Instructors Anderson, Bean, Bowman, Culton, Flynn, Gaither, Hobson, Hodge, Madock, O'Laughlin, Peters, Scaro, Shirley, Simmons, Yarborough

The Department of Biology has a strong commitment to teaching at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Recipients of undergraduate biology degrees find employment in a wide range of fields and are well-prepared for further study in graduate school and in health-related professions such as medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine. Writing-intensive courses and laboratory classes help develop communication and research skills. Additionally, the department supports an active Biology Club, which provides students with a source of friends who have common interests.

The department's tradition of excellence in education is complemented by a faculty actively engaged in research in areas ranging from molecular biology and biochemistry to ecology and evolution. Students are encouraged to gain research experience through independent study with a faculty mentor.

Biology Major (Bachelor of Arts)

Required: 122 semester hours

The Department offers a full range of courses leading to the BA degree. The degree may lead to further study in graduate school, medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, medical technology, biotechnology, and environmental biology. (See also the descriptions of pre-professional programs, pp. 383-387, concerning their requirements.) Both study and laboratory facilities are available to advanced undergraduates.

College of Arts and Sciences Liberal Education Requirements (CLER) (54-55 hours)

All students must meet the All-University Liberal Education Requirements (AULER) and the College of Arts and Sciences Liberal Education Requirements (CLER). Note that students who satisfy CLER will also satisfy AULER. See pp. 70-73 for a complete description of the College requirements and pp. 65-66 and 71-72 for a listing of courses meeting AULER/CLER requirements.

Major Requirements

Biology majors must complete BIO 111 and 112, and a minimum of 30 semester hours of Biology courses above the 100-level. A maximum of four hours at the 200-level may be counted toward the major. Students must have a grade point average of at least 2.0 in Biology courses completed at UNCG.

Biology Core Courses

In meeting this requirement for hours above the 100-level, all B.A. in Biology majors must complete the following core courses:

1.
Ecology: BIO 301
2.
Cell Biology: BIO 355
3.
Genetics: BIO 392
4.
Diversity: one of the following: BIO 322, 341, 354, or 370
5.
At least one of the following core laboratory courses: BIO 302, 356, or 393

Related Area Requirements

Biology majors are required to take the following cognate courses or their approved equivalents:

1.
CHE 111, 112, 114, 115
2.
MAT 121 or 191

The department highly recommends the following courses in addition to the required cognates:

1.
CHE 351, 352, 354
2.
MAT 191, 292
3.
STA 271, or 571 and 571L
4.
PHY 211, 212


B.A. in Biology with Concentration in Biotechnology

The concentration in biotechnology is designed for students with a strong interest in molecular biology and genetics. Courses will prepare students in both conceptual aspects of molecular biology and their practical application in biotechnology and genetic engineering.

Basic requirements beyond the Biology Core: BIO 481, 499 (1-3 hrs), 535, 594, 596; CHE 351, 352, 354; PHY 211, 212 or 291, 292; and MAT 191

Strongly recommended: BIO 424, 528, 538, 545, 583, 584, 595; CHE 331, 333; and additional hours of Undergraduate Research (BIO 499)

Note: Students will be required to attend seminars covering biotechnology topics.


B.A. in Biology with Concentration in Environmental Biology

This concentration is designed for students with a strong interest in environmental biology. The concentration provides students with a breadth and depth of environmental awareness, rigorously prepares them for advanced studies in environmental biology and trains them for environmentally-oriented professions.

Basic requirements beyond the Biology Core:

1.
BIO 302
2.
One additional course in Biological Diversity (BIO 322, 341, 354, or 370)
3.
BIO 431
4.
At least two of the following advanced Biology courses: BIO 420, 430, 527, 528, 529, 560, or 579

Additional requirements:

1.
Statistics (STA 271 or 571 and 571L)
2.
Introduction to Earth Science (GEO 103)
3.
At least one of the following courses: CHE 252; GEO 205, 303, 311, 314; PSC 312, 313; SOC 339; ECO 380

Strongly recommended:

CHE 351, 352, 354; PHY 211 and 212 or 291 and 292; MAT 191

Biology Major (Bachelor of Science)

Required: 122 semester hours

The Bachelor of Science degree is offered for those students aspiring to a professional career in biology, and for those students with particularly strong interests in the discipline. (See also the descriptions of pre-professional programs, pp. xxx-xxx, concerning their requirements.) A student pursuing the Bachelor of Science is expected to develop a stronger background in mathematics and cognate sciences and to attain a greater understanding of biology than will a student pursuing a Bachelor of Arts degree. Bachelor of Science students will also be strongly encouraged to undertake an individual research project with a faculty member during their junior and/or senior year.

College of Arts and Sciences Liberal Education Requirements (CLER) (54-55 hours)

All students must meet the All-University Liberal Education Requirements (AULER) and the College of Arts and Sciences Liberal Education Requirements (CLER). Note that students who satisfy CLER will also satisfy AULER. See pp. 70-73 for a complete description of the College requirements and pp. 65-66 and 71-72 for a listing of courses meeting AULER/CLER requirements.

Major Requirements

Biology majors must complete BIO 111 and 112, and a minimum of 30 semester hours of Biology courses above the 100-level. A maximum of four hours at the 200-level may be counted toward the major. Students must have a grade point average of at least 2.0 in Biology courses completed at UNCG.

Biology Core Requirements

In meeting this requirement for hours above the 100-level, all B.S. Biology majors must complete the following courses:

1.
Ecology: BIO 301
2.
Cell Biology: BIO 355
3.
Genetics: BIO 392
4.
Diversity: one of the following: BIO 322, 341, 354, or 370
5.
At least one of the following laboratory core courses: BIO 302, 356, or 393
6.
At least one course at the 500-level

Undergraduate Research (BIO 499) or Honors Work (BIO 493), for 2 or more credit hours, are also strongly recommended.

Related Area Requirements

B.S. Biology majors are required to take the following cognate courses or their approved equivalents:

1.
CHE 111, 112, 114, 115, 351, 352, and 354
2.
MAT 191 and either MAT 292 or STA 271 (or STA 571 and 571L)
3.
PHY 211, 212 or PHY 291, 292



B.S. in Biology with Concentration in Biotechnology

The concentration in biotechnology is designed for students with a strong interest in molecular biology and genetics. Courses will prepare students in both conceptual aspects of molecular biology and their practical application in biotechnology and genetic engineering.

Basic requirements beyond the Biology Core: BIO 481, 499 (1-3 hrs), 535, 594, 596

Strongly recommended: BIO 424, 528, 538, 545, 583, 584, 595; CHE 331, 333; and additional hours of Undergraduate Research (BIO 499)

Note: Students will be required to attend seminars covering biotechnology topics.


B.S. in Biology with Concentration in Environmental Biology

This concentration is designed for students with a strong interest in environmental biology. The concentration provides students with a breadth and depth of environmental awareness, rigorously prepares them for advanced studies in environmental biology and trains them for environmentally-oriented professions.

Basic requirements beyond the Biology Core:

1.
BIO 302
2.
One additional course in Biological Diversity (BIO 322, 341, 354, or 370)
3.
BIO 431
4.
At least two of the following advanced Biology courses: BIO 420, 430, 527, 528, 529, 560, or 579

Additional requirements:

1.
Statistics (STA 271 or 571 and 571L)
2.
Introduction to Earth Science (GEO 103)
3.
At least one of the following courses: CHE 252; GEO 205, 303, 311, 314; PSC 312, 313; SOC 339; ECO 380

Biology Minor

A minimum of 17 hours in biology is required for a minor in biology. The following courses are required:

1.
BIO 111 and 112
2.
One course from two of the following four categories:
Ecology: BIO 301
Cell Biology: BIO 355
Genetics: BIO 392
Diversity: BIO 322, 341, 354, or 370

Biology as a Second Major

A minimum of 24 hours in biology is required for a second major in Biology. A maximum of 4 semester hours may be at the 200-level. The following courses are required:

1.
BIO 111 and 112
2.
One course from each of the following four categories:
Ecology: BIO 301
Cell Biology: BIO 355
Genetics: BIO 392
Diversity: BIO 322, 341, 354, or 370
3.
CHE 111 and 112
4.
CHE 114 and 115

Concentration in Biology

A total of 24 semester hours in biology is required for a concentration in Biology. The following courses are required:

1.
BIO 111 and 112
2.
One course from three of the following four categories:
Ecology: BIO 301
Cell Biology: BIO 355
Genetics: BIO 392
Diversity: BIO 322, 341, 354, or 370

Biopsychology Second Major

This second major is designed for students interested in behavior and the structure and function of nervous systems. Topics will span molecular, cellular, organ, and organismal levels.

Basic requirements: BIO 111, 112, 277, 355; CHE 111, 112, 114, 115; MAT 121 or 191; and PSY 121, 230, 435, 438, and 436 or 457 (Note: PSY 300, a prerequisite for upper level Psychology courses, will be waived for Biology majors pursuing a Biopsychology second major).

Additional requirements: a minimum of six additional hours in Biology courses selected from BIO 425, 453, 464, 477, 479, 567, and 575.

Strongly recommended: CHE 351, 352, 354; MAT 191, 292; and PHY 211, 212.


Transfer Credit

Credit for courses above the 100-level is transferred as Biology elective credit only. To establish transfer credit for specific Biology courses above the 100-level, students should contact the head of the Department of Biology. Transfer students are reminded that at least 12 credit hours in the major must be completed at UNCG.

Teacher Licensure Requirements

Secondary Subject-Area Licensure in Biology

Undergraduates seeking secondary teacher licensure in biology must satisfy the requirements for the B.A. or B.S. degree in Biology and must also complete Geography 103, Mathematics 121, and Physics 205/205L. See additional information in this catalog in Chapter 7, "Teacher Education Programs."

Students seeking admission to the UNCG Teacher Education Program with a major in Biology must meet the following minimum requirements of the Department of Biology:

1. Completion of a minimum of 9 semester hours in biology courses, with at least 6 of those hours from courses taken at UNCG.

2. A grade point average of at least 2.5 for biology courses completed at UNCG. Students already admitted to the UNCG Teacher Education Program with a major in Biology who are seeking admission to Student Teaching must meet the following requirements of the

Department of Biology:

1. Completion of a minimum of 18 semester hours of biology courses, with at least 15 of those hours from courses taken at UNCG.

2. A grade point average of at least 2.5 for biology courses completed at UNCG.

Initial "A" Licensure

Students with an undergraduate degree who are seeking Initial "A" Licensure in Biology must complete the requirements for a B.A. or B.S. in Biology at UNCG with a biology grade point average of 2.5 or better. Course selection must be completed in consultation with the Head of the Department of Biology. Students who have already taken biology courses as part of their undergraduate program should contact the Head of the Department of Biology to determine if any of those courses can be accepted as meeting some of the requirements for "A" licensure in Biology at UNCG.

Questions about the above requirements should be directed to the Head of the Department of Biology.

Accelerated Masters Program for Undergraduates-
BA in Biology and MS in Chemistry

The accelerated program  in Biology provides the opportunity for a student to complete a B.A. in Biology (122 hours) within a four-year period and to shorten the time required to finish the Master of Science degree in Chemistry.

Interested students should:

have some Advanced Placement credit upon admission to UNCG in order to reduce the number of required undergraduate hours. See courses on pp. 20-21 for which AP credit is available.

identify themselves as potential accelerated candidates early in their academic careers in order to receive appropriate advising. Although formal admission to an accelerated program usually occurs in the junior year, careful selection of undergraduate courses beginning in the freshman year is essential. Students should talk with an advisor in the department of Biology as early as possible.

plan to take the GRE in the spring of the junior year.

seek admission to the Graduate School in the fall of the senior year.

Requirements for Combined Accelerated B.A. in Biology/M.S. in Chemistry

A.
College Liberal Arts Component (61 hours max)
Hours
Hours reduced by courses meeting more than one requirement
See additional CLER area requirements and available
35-48
AP credit on p. 71.
Special CLER area requirements for this program:
Mathematics (MT)- required: MAT 191 (see C below)
3
-3
Natural Science (NS)- required for the CPS
9-10
-10
component: CHE 111, PHY 211 (see C & D below);
required for the CLS component: BIO 111
(see B below)
Maximum hours
48-61
Total Hours (reduced)
48
(-13)
B.
Biology Major (B.A.) Requirements (38 hours)
1.
BIO 111 (meets CLER NS/CLS requirement), 112
8
2.
Ecology: BIO 301
3
3.
Cell Biology: BIO 355
3
4.
Genetics: BIO 392
3
5.
Diversity: one of BIO 322, 341, 354, 370
3-4
6.
17-18 additional hours above the 100 level with
17-18
no more than four hours at the 200 level
Total hours
38
C.
Related Requirements (11 hours)
1.
General Chemistry: CHE 111 (meets part of CLER
8
NS/CPS requirement), 112, 114, 115
2.
Mathematics: MAT 191 (meets CLER
3
MAT requirement)
Total hours
11
Total Undergraduate Requirements (maximum)
127
D.
Chemistry Prerequisites (29 hours)
1.
General Physics: PHY 211 (meets part of CLER
8
NS/CPS requirement), 212
2.
Organic Chemistry: CHE 351, 352, 354
8
3.
Inorganic Chemistry: CHE 242, 442
5
4.
Analytical Chemistry: CHE 331, 333
4
5.
Physical Chemistry: CHE 506
4
Total hours
39
Total Undergraduate Semester Hours
127
E.
Related Requirements for M.S. in Chemistry (30 hours)
Senior Year (6 hours)
CHE 501, 553 (Fall)
3
CHE 502, 632 (Spring)
3
Summer (3 hours)
Approved BIO or CHE elective
3
Graduate or 5th Year (19 hours)
CHE 641, 661, approved BIO or CHE elective (Fall)
9
CHE 680, 699 (Spring)
6-12
Total MS Semester Hours
30

BIOLOGY COURSES (BIO)

For Undergraduates

105 Major Concepts of Biology (3:3). For students not planning to take additional biology courses.
Students who have prior credit for BIO 101, 102 or BIO 111, 112 may not take BIO 105 for credit.

Introduction to the major ideas about life including reproduction, genetics, evolution, energetics, and ecology. Emphasis placed on the derivation of ideas. [NS, CLS].

106 Plants and Civilization (2:2).

Introduction to uses of plants and fungi in human society.

111 Principles of Biology I (4:3:3). Students who have prior credit for BIO 101 or 103 may not take BIO 111 for credit.

Prerequisite for most other biology courses. Lecture and laboratory cover the fundamental principles of biology including the molecular and cellular basis of life, energetics, and homeostasis. [NS, CLS].

112 Principles of Biology II (4:3:3). Pr. 111.
Students who have prior credit for BIO 102 or 104 may not take BIO 112 for credit.

Prerequisite for 300 level courses and above. Continuation of 111. Fundamental principles of biology including cellular and organismic reproduction, genetics, evolution, and ecology. [NS, CLS].

271 Mammalian Anatomy (4:3:3). Pr. 111.

Human anatomy with study of skeletons, models, and anatomical preparations. Includes dissection of cat.

277 Mammalian Physiology (4:3:3). Pr. 111 and high school chemistry with grade of C or better. Human physiology with emphasis on homeostatic mechanisms.

280 Fundamentals of Microbiology (3:2:4). Pr. 111. Credit cannot be received for this course and BIO 481. General survey of microscopic life and its impact on medicine, public health, industry, agriculture and the environment. Recommended for non-biology majors.

The remaining courses (300-, 400-, 500-, and 600-levels) require the successful completion of BIO 101-102 or 111-112:

301 Principles of Ecology (3:3).

Introduction to fundamentals of ecology. Principles relating to populations, communities and ecosystems. Particular emphasis placed on the many dimensions of interdependence within ecosystems. (FA,SP)

302 Introductory Ecology Laboratory (1:0:4). Pr. 301 (may be taken concurrently). Laboratory course to accompany BIO 301. Several field trips, including one weekend trip, required. (FA)

322 Plant Diversity (4:3:3). Introduction to the plant kingdom from an evolutionary point of view. Emphasis is on structure, function, reproduction, and phylogenetic relationships of the plants. (FA)

341 Invertebrate Zoology (4:3:3). Major invertebrate groups with emphasis on ecology, physiology, evolution, and structural adaptations of representative types. Weekend coastal field trip required. (SP)

354 Plant Systematics (4:3:3). Introduction to the classification and evolution of vascular plants. The principles of classification and characteristics of selected plant families are emphasized. (Odd SP)

355 Cell Biology (3:3). Pr. CHE 114 or equivalent.

Study of cellular organization and function. Fundamental biochemical properties, including cellular components, enzyme function, energetics, and metabolism studied in relation to cellular structure, membrane function, cell movement, and cytoplasmic compartments. (FA,SP)

356 Cell Biology Laboratory (1:0:3). Pr. previous completion of or current enrollment in 355. Withdrawal from 355 requires automatic withdrawal from 356.

Laboratory exercises to complement lecture material of 355. (FA,SP)

361 Experimental Course: Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles (3). Pr. BIO 111 and 112 or permission of instructor.

Study of sea turtles of the Atlantic will be centered around two weeks of field work conducted in Tortuguero, Costa Rica, during the nesting of green sea turtles in July.

370 Natural History of the Vertebrates (3:2:3). Classification, identification, and phylogeny of all classes of vertebrates, with field work. (FA)

392 Genetics (3:3). Mendelism and modern trends in genetics. (FA)

393 Genetics Laboratory (1:0:4). Pr. concurrent enrollment in or prior completion of BIO 392. Laboratory course to complement BIO 392. Exercises employ both classic genetic approaches and modern recombinant DNA technology.

420 Marine Biology (3:3). Pr. one of the four core courses. An introduction to marine organisms and their habitats; special attention given to adaptations necessary for marine life, physical oceanography, and basic ecological principles; one weekend coastal field trip is required. (Even SP)

424 Plant Physiology and Biotechnology (3:2:3). Pr. 355. Physiological processes involved in plant growth spanning effects from the molecular to the environmental level. Laboratories will utilize biotechnological manipulations of the model plant Arabidopsis. (SP)

425 Biological Clocks (3:3). Pr. one of the four core courses. Descriptive survey of behavioral and physiological rhythms in humans and other animals, including circadian, tidal, lunar, seasonal and circannual cycles, with ecological considerations and implications for human health. (Even SP)

430 Biological Evolution (3:3). Pr. 392 and a diversity course. Survey of modern systematics and the biological mechanisms responsible for diversity among living forms. (SP)

431 The Biosphere (3:3). Pr. 301. A study of environmental issues in biology, specifically ecosystems, population dynamics, biodiversity and extinction. (Even FA)

438 Animal Behavior (3:3). Pr. PSY 121 and 230, or BIO 111 and 112. Students cannot receive credit for both this course and PSY 438. Application of theory of evolution to the explanation of animal behavior. Surveys a variety of species, addressing several behavioral categories as well as issues in sociobiology and human evolution. (Same as PSY 438)

440 Vascular Plant Anatomy (4:3:3). Pr. 392 or a diversity course. Principles of plant structure and function are studied in lecture and laboratory. Emphasis is placed on structure and evolution of the major tissues of vascular plants.

453 Vertebrate Morphogenesis (4:3:3). Pr. 355. Comparative anatomy of vertebrate embryos and adult forms. Laboratory work includes dissection of representative vertebrates and microscopic study of stages of embryonic development. (FA)

464 Developmental Biology (4:3:3). Pr. 355. A survey of developmental processes in plants and animals. Topics will include fertilization, achievement of multicellularity, cell determination and differentiation, pattern development, and the genetic regulation of such processes. (SP)

472 Functional Microscopic Anatomy (4:3:3). Pr. 355. Microscopic anatomy of vertebrate tissues. Emphasis on correlation of cell and tissue functions with structures visible under the light and electron microscopes. (Even FA)

477 Animal Physiology (3:3). Pr. 355. Physiology of invertebrates and vertebrates including metabolism, temperature regulation, respiration, blood, circulation, water and ion balance, excretion, and the nervous, sensory, endocrine, and muscular systems. (Even FA)

479 Neurobiology (3:3). Pr. 355. Descriptive overview of chemical transmission in nervous systems from invertebrates to man. Sensory processing, ionic conductance at synapses and axons, neural circuits and pathways in the brain will be analyzed. (Odd FA)

481 General Microbiology (4:3:4). Pr. 355 or 392. Introductory survey of microbiology, emphasizing the role of microorganisms in everyday life. (FA)

483 Introduction to Clinical Pathology (3:2:4). Pr. 277, and 355 or 392, and CHE 114. Introduction to profession of medical technology, including major divisions within the field of laboratory medicine. Lectures describe tests to evaluate organ systems, basic pathophysiology-producing abnormalities and evaluation of clinical procedures. Laboratories emphasize basic concepts and evaluation of results of tests discussed in lecture. (SP)

493 Honors Work (3-6). See prerequisites under Honors Program, XXX 493 (p. 379).

498 Biology Seminar (1:1). Pr. senior standing.Oral reports and discussions of topics from current literature of biology by students, faculty and guest lecturers. (Formerly BIO 599)

499 Undergraduate Research (1 to 3). Pr. two core courses and consent of instructor. May be repeated for up to 6 hours credit with departmental permission. Individual Studies: Biological research under the direction of a faculty member, culminating in a written report. Times by arrangement.

For Advanced Undergraduates and

Graduate Students

Consult instructor for equivalence of listed prerequisites.

501 Advanced Topics in Animal Ecology (3:3). Pr. a previous course in ecology.Directed readings in the literature of physiological ecology, growth and regulation of populations, community structure, energy flow, mineral cycling, and other areas of current research interest.

502 Advanced Topics in Animal Physiology (3:3). Pr. 277 and 355.Study of physiological mechanisms; selected problems from current literature.

503 Advanced Topics in Biochemistry (3:3). Pr. 535.Directed readings and reports from the biochemical literature. Structure and biosynthesis of macromolecules and the composition and kinetic characteristics of biochemical pathways.

504 Advanced Topics in Cell Biology (3:3). Pr. 355.Advanced treatment of cell biology covering selected topics such as gene regulation, protein sorting, cell cycle control, apoptosis. The course will consist of lectures and discussion of research articles.

505 Advanced Topics in Ecological Physiology (3:3). Pr. 477 or 579. Study of a major topic in ecological physiology of animals, including mechanisms by which physiological processes change in response to environmental alterations and the ecological significance of those changes.

506 Advanced Topics in Genetics (3:3). Pr. 392. Basic mechanisms of gene action in microbes, animals, and plants.

507 Advanced Topics in Neurobiology (3:3). Pr. 477 and 579, or permission of instructor. Directed readings on fundamental physiological principles of nervous system functioning. Topics may included motor pattern generation, sensory transduction, sensori-motor integration, neurohormonal modulation of behavior.

509 Advanced Topics in Microbiology (3:3). Pr. 481.Critical review of current research covering a wide range of topics including infectious diseases, bacterial physiology, marine microbiology, and immunology. Focus on students' interests or needs.

510 Advanced Topics in Plant Ecology (3:3). Pr. a previous course in ecology.Studies of special terrestrial communities or plant groups.

511 Advanced Topics in Plant Physiology (3:3). Pr. 424. The physiology of growth and development in vascular plants treated in terms of phytohormones, nutrition, theories of transport, and environmental factors.

512 Advanced Topics in Plant Structure and Evolution (3:3). Pr. 322 or 354 or 440 or permission of instructor. Lectures and discussions of current research in plant structure, development and evolution. The topics to be covered will change from semester to semester.

513 Advanced Topics in Reproductive Biology (3:3). Pr. 464 or permission of instructor. Directed readings and original research on reproductive biology, with emphasis on structural, regulatory, behavioral, and evolutionary aspects.

515 Advanced Topics in Vertebrate History (3:3). Pr. 271 or 453, 370, and 392, and permission of instructor. Directed/independent study of classification and phylogeny of particular vertebrate groups that results in a term paper.

527 Terrestrial Plant Ecology (3:2:3). Pr. 301. Application of principles of ecology to plants and plant communities. Experimental methods stressed in laboratory work. Two required weekend field trips. (Odd FA)

528 Microbial Ecology (3:3). Pr. 301 and either 280 or 481, or permission of instructor. Emphasis on current areas of active research with reference to applied problems. (Even SP)

529 Aquatic Ecology (3:2:3). Pr. 301, CHE 114, or permission of instructor. Interactions and adaptations of aquatic organisms in the major aquatic environments: fresh water, estuaries, and oceans. Optional field trips monitor local lakes, Carolina bay lakes, and the coastal Cape Fear area.

535 General Biochemistry (3:3). Pr. 277 or 355 or 392, or permission of instructor. Chemical properties of major cellular compounds; biosynthesis, degradation, and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins, and hormones; energy metabolism; enzymatic catalysis. (FA)

538 Radiation Biology and Radiotracer Methods (4:3:3). Pr. 355 or 392, or permission of instructor. Characteristics of ionizing radiation and use of radioisotopes in biological studies. Principles of radiation interaction; methods of detection of ionizing radiation; personnel protection. Laboratory work emphasizes liquid scintillation methods and processing of these data. (Odd SP)

545 General Biochemistry Laboratory (1:0:3). Pr. 535 (may be taken concurrently). Experimental work designed to complement lecture material of 535. (FA)

549 Current Topics in Biology (1 to 3). Pr. permission of instructor. Current topics in the biological sciences. Students complete individual readings or laboratory/field experiments under the supervision of faculty.

550 Macroevolution (3:3). Pr. 392 and a diversity course (322, 341, 354, or 370). Lectures and discussions provide an introduction to evolution above the species level. Special attention given to constraints on evolutionary change and to theories integrating development and evolution.

552 Metamorphosis (3:3). Pr. an upper level course in physiology (e.g. 477), and a course in developmental biology (e.g. 453) or equivalent courses. Readings, discussions, and oral presentations of current literature on metamorphosis in animals. Mechanisms controlling metamorphosis, evolution of complex life cycles, and adaptations to differing habitats. (Odd FA)

555 Vertebrate Reproduction (3:3). Pr. 464. An advanced treatment of the diversity of vertebrate reproductive biology, with emphasis on structural, regulatory, behavioral, and evolutionary aspects. (Even SP)

560 Symbiosis (3:2:3). Pr. any three core courses, or permission of instructor. Symbiotic interactions of living organisms from an evolutionary perspective. Metabolic, genetic, behavioral, and ecological adaptations which allow symbioses to be formed and maintained will be discussed. (Odd SP)

567 Chemical Senses (3:3). Pr. 355, and one of the following: BIO 277, 472, 477, 479, PSY 450, PSY 453, or permission of instructor. Exploration and interactive discussion of chemosensory stimuli, chemosensory transduction mechanisms, neural processing of chemosensory information, and organismal consequences of chemoreception.

575 Neuroanatomical Techniques (3:2:4). Pr. 355 and one of the following: BIO 453, 472, 477, 479, PSY 450, PSY 453, or permission of instructor. Practical experience with a variety of neuroanatomical procedures used to investigate the structural framework of nervous systems in invertebrate and vertebrate preparations. Students will learn to conduct independent projects. (Odd SP)

579 Environmental Physiology (3:3). Pr. 341, 355, or 370, plus 277 or 477. Lectures, discussions, and student presentations on the physiology of animals as it is influenced by and is adapted to environmental conditions. (Odd FA)

583 Virology (3:3). Pr. 481 or permission of instructor; 392 and 535 recommended. Selected topics in virology. Emphasis upon new trends in the study of animal, plant, and bacterial viruses at both molecular and cellular levels. (Even SP)

584 Immunology (3:3). Pr. 481 or permission of instructor. Principles of immunology and serology covering both humoral and cellular aspects of immunobiology. Selected topics include: T and B cell, immunoglobulins, tolerance, hypersensitivity. (Odd SP)

594 Introduction to Biotechnology (4:3:4). Pr. 12 hours of biology or chemistry above 100 level, including BIO 392. Basic principles and techniques of biotechnology. Includes molecular cloning, DNA sequencing, and hybridomas. Explores development of gene amplification, gene therapy, and DNA fingerprinting. (SP)

595 Advanced Genetics (3:3). Pr. 392. Selected topics in genetics at an advanced level. Emphasis placed on comparative view of molecular mechanisms underlying animal and plant development. (Even SP)

596 Molecular Biological Approaches in Research (1:1). Pr. 392. Use of novel molecular approaches to address current questions in the life sciences will be explored by analyzing recent research reports and learning the principles underlying these approaches.

For Graduate Students Only

601 Seminar in Animal Ecology. (3:3).

602 Seminar in Animal Physiology. (3:3).

603 Seminar in Biochemistry. (3:3).

604 Seminar in Ecological Physiology. (3:3).

605 Seminar in Ecology (3:3).

606 Seminar in Evolutionary Biology (3:3).

608 Seminar in Microbiology (3:3).

609 Seminar in Molecular Cell Biology. (3:3).

610 Seminar in Molecular Genetics. (3:3).

612 Seminar in Plant Structure and Evolution. (3:3).

613 Seminar in Reproductive Biology. (3:3).

649 Research Lab Rotations. (1:0).

695 Biological Research (3:0).

699 Thesis (3 to 6).

800 Graduate Registration (0).

 
 
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