Department of Biology
312 Eberhart Building
|A. College Liberal Arts Component (61 hours max)
B. Biology Major (B.A.) Requirements (38 hours)
C. Related Requirements (11 hours)
D. Chemistry Prerequisites (29 hours)
E. Related Requirements for M.S. in Chemistry (30 hours)
Courses For Undergraduates
105 Major Concepts of Biology (3:3).
Introduction to the major ideas about life including reproduction, genetics, evolution, energetics, and ecology. Emphasis placed on the derivation of ideas. [NS, CLS].
111 Principles of Biology I (4:3:3).
Prerequisite for most other biology courses. Lecture and laboratory cover the fundamental principles of biology including the molecular and cellular basis of life, energetics, and homeostasis. [NS, CLS].
112 Principles of Biology II (4:3:3). Pr. 111.
Prerequisite for 300 level courses and above. Continuation of 111. Fundamental principles of biology including cellular and organismic reproduction, genetics, evolution, and ecology. [NS, CLS].
271 Mammalian Anatomy (4:3:3). Pr. 111.
Human anatomy with study of skeletons, models, and anatomical preparations. Includes dissection of cat.
277 Mammalian Physiology (4:3:3). Pr. 111 and high school chemistry with grade of C or better.
Human physiology with emphasis on homeostatic mechanisms.
280 Fundamentals of Microbiology (3:2:4). Pr. 111.
General survey of microscopic life and its impact on medicine, public health, industry, agriculture and the environment.
The remaining courses (300-, 400-, and 500-levels) require the successful completion of BIO 101-102 or 111-112.
301 Principles of Ecology (3:3).
Introduction to fundamentals of ecology. Principles relating to populations, communities and ecosystems. Particular emphasis placed on the many dimensions of interdependence within ecosystems. (FA,SP)
302 Introductory Ecology Laboratory (1:0:4). Pr. 301 (may be taken concurrently).
Laboratory course to accompany BIO 301. Several field trips. (FA)
322 Plant Diversity (4:3:3).
Introduction to the plant kingdom from an evolutionary point of view. Emphasis is on structure, function, reproduction, and phylogenetic relationships of the plants. (FA)
341 Invertebrate Zoology (4:3:3).
Major invertebrate groups with emphasis on ecology, physiology, evolution, and structural adaptations of representative types. Weekend coastal field trip required. (SP)
354 Plant Systematics (4:3:3).
Introduction to the classification and evolution of vascular plants. The principles of classification and characteristics of selected plant families are emphasized. (Odd SP)
355 Cell Biology (3:3). Pr. CHE 114 or equivalent.
Study of cellular organization and function. Fundamental biochemical properties, including cellular components, enzyme function, energetics, and metabolism studied in relation to cellular structure, membrane function, cell movement, and cytoplasmic compartments. (FA,SP)
356 Cell Biology Laboratory (1:0:3). Pr. previous completion of or current enrollment in 355. Withdrawal from 355 requires automatic withdrawal from 356.
Laboratory exercises to complement lecture material of 355. (FA,SP)
361 Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles (3:1:6). Pr. 111 or permission of instructor.
Students spend 2 weeks in July/August in Tortuguero, Costa Rica tagging and collecting data on nesting green turtles. Selected topics will be discussed in fall seminar. (SU-FA)
370 Natural History of the Vertebrates (3:2:3).
Classification, identification, and phylogeny of all classes of vertebrates, with field work. (FA)
392 Genetics (3:3).
Mendelism and modern trends in genetics. (FA)
393 Genetics Laboratory (1:0:4). Pr. concurrent enrollment in or prior completion of BIO 392.
Laboratory course to complement BIO 392. Exercises employ both classic genetic approaches and modern recombinant DNA technology.
420 Marine Biology (3:3). Pr. one of the four core courses.
An introduction to marine organisms and their habitats; special attention given to adaptations necessary for marine life, physical oceanography, and basic ecological principles; one weekend coastal field trip is required. (Even SP)
424 Plant Physiology and Biotechnology (3:2:3). Pr. 355.
Physiological processes involved in plant growth spanning effects from the molecular to the environmental level. Laboratories will utilize biotechnological manipulations of the model plant Arabidopsis. (SP)
425 Biological Clocks (3:3). Pr. one of the four core courses.
Descriptive survey of behavioral and physiological rhythms in humans and other animals, including circadian, tidal, lunar, seasonal and circannual cycles, with ecological considerations and implications for human health. (Even SP)
430 Biological Evolution (3:3). Pr. 301, 392 and a diversity course.
Survey of modern systematics and the biological mechanisms responsible for diversity among living forms. (SP)
431 The Biosphere (3:3). Pr. 301.
A study of environmental issues in biology, specifically ecosystems, population dynamics, biodiversity and extinction. (Even FA)
438 Animal Behavior (3:3). Pr. PSY 121 and 230, or BIO 111 and 112. · When offered in the same semester with PSY 438L or BIO 439, both lecture and lab must be taken for credit.
Application of theory of evolution to the explanation of animal behavior. Surveys a variety of species, addressing several behavioral categories as well as issues in sociobiology and human evolution. (Same as PSY 438)
439 Animal Behavior Laboratory (1:0:3). Pr. PSY 230 and 300, or BIO 111 and 112. Corequisite PSY 438 or BIO 438. · When offered in the same semester as PSY or BIO 438, both lecture and lab must be taken for credit.
Required laboratory component for PSY 438/BIO 438. Methods for assessing the developmental, physiological, evolutionary and adaptive bases of animal behavior using laboratory and field techniques. (Same as PSY 438L) (Alt SP)
440 Vascular Plant Anatomy (4:3:3). Pr. 392 or a diversity course.
Principles of plant structure and function are studied in lecture and laboratory. Emphasis is placed on structure and evolution of the major tissues of vascular plants.
453 Vertebrate Morphogenesis (4:3:3). Pr. 355.
Comparative anatomy of vertebrate embryos and adult forms. Laboratory work includes dissection of representative vertebrates and microscopic study of stages of embryonic development. (FA)
464 Developmental Biology (4:3:3). Pr. 355.
A survey of developmental processes in plants and animals. Topics will include fertilization, achievement of multicellularity, cell determination and differentiation, pattern development, and the genetic regulation of such processes. (SP)
472 Functional Microscopic Anatomy (4:3:3). Pr. 355.
Microscopic anatomy of vertebrate tissues. Emphasis on correlation of cell and tissue functions with structures visible under the light and electron microscopes. (Even FA)
477 Animal Physiology (3:3). Pr. 355.
Physiology of invertebrates and vertebrates including metabolism, temperature regulation, respiration, blood, circulation, water and ion balance, excretion, and the nervous, sensory, endocrine, and muscular systems. (Even FA)
479 Neurobiology (3:3). Pr. 355.
Descriptive overview of chemical transmission in nervous systems from invertebrates to man. Sensory processing, ionic conductance at synapses and axons, neural circuits and pathways in the brain will be analyzed. (Odd FA)
481 General Microbiology (4:3:4). Pr. 355 or 392.
Introductory survey of microbiology, emphasizing the role of microorganisms in everyday life. (FA)
483 Introduction to Clinical Pathology (3:2:4). Pr. 277, and 355 or 392, and CHE 114.
Introduction to profession of medical technology, including major divisions within the field of laboratory medicine. Lectures describe tests to evaluate organ systems, basic pathophysiology-producing abnormalities and evaluation of clinical procedures. Laboratories emphasize basic concepts and evaluation of results of tests discussed in lecture. (SP)
493 Honors Work (3-6). See prerequisites under Honors Program, XXX 493.
498 Biology Seminar (1:1). Pr. senior standing.
Oral reports and discussions of topics from current literature of biology by students, faculty and guest lecturers.
499 Undergraduate Research (1 to 3). Pr. two core courses and consent of instructor.
Individual Studies: Biological research under the direction of a faculty member, culminating in a written report. Times by arrangement.
Courses for Advanced Undergraduates and Graduate Students
Consult instructor for equivalence of listed prerequisites. 500-level courses also require the successful completion of BIO 101-102 or 111-112 as prerequisites.
501 Advanced Topics in Animal Ecology (3:3). Pr. a previous course in ecology.
Directed readings in the literature of physiological ecology, growth and regulation of populations, community structure, energy flow, mineral cycling, and other areas of current research interest.
502 Advanced Topics in Animal Physiology (3:3). Pr. 277 and 355.
Study of physiological mechanisms; selected problems from current literature.
503 Advanced Topics in Biochemistry (3:3). Pr. 535.
Directed readings and reports from the biochemical literature. Structure and biosynthesis of macromolecules and the composition and kinetic characteristics of biochemical pathways.
504 Advanced Topics in Cell Biology (3:3). Pr. 355.
Advanced treatment of cell biology covering selected topics such as gene regulation, protein sorting, cell cycle control, apoptosis. The course will consist of lectures and discussion of research articles.
505 Advanced Topics in Ecological Physiology (3:3). Pr. 477 or 579.
Study of a major topic in ecological physiology of animals, including mechanisms by which physiological processes change in response to environmental alterations and the ecological significance of those changes.
506 Advanced Topics in Genetics (3:3). Pr. 392.
Basic mechanisms of gene action in microbes, animals, and plants.
507 Advanced Topics in Neurobiology (3:3). Pr. 477 and 579, or permission of instructor.
Directed readings on fundamental physiological principles of nervous system functioning. Topics may included motor pattern generation, sensory transduction, sensori-motor integration, neurohormonal modulation of behavior.
509 Advanced Topics in Microbiology (3:3). Pr. 481.
Critical review of current research covering a wide range of topics including infectious diseases, bacterial physiology, marine microbiology, and immunology. Focus on students' interests or needs.
510 Advanced Topics in Plant Ecology (3:3). Pr. a previous course in ecology.
Studies of special terrestrial communities or plant groups.
511 Advanced Topics in Plant Physiology (3:3). Pr. 424.
The physiology of growth and development in vascular plants treated in terms of phytohormones, nutrition, theories of transport, and environmental factors.
512 Advanced Topics in Plant Structure and Evolution (3:3). Pr. 322 or 354 or 440 or permission of instructor.
Lectures and discussions of current research in plant structure, development and evolution. The topics to be covered will change from semester to semester.
513 Advanced Topics in Reproductive Biology (3:3). Pr. 464 or permission of instructor.
Directed readings and original research on reproductive biology, with emphasis on structural, regulatory, behavioral, and evolutionary aspects.
515 Advanced Topics in Vertebrate History (3:3). Pr. 271 or 453, 370, and 392, and permission of instructor.
Directed/independent study of classification and phylogeny of particular vertebrate groups that results in a term paper.
526 Conservation Biology (3:3). Pr. 301.
Introduction to habitat and species conservation; topics include genetic diversity, demographic patterns of rare species, habitat fragmentation, design and management of nature reserves, ecological restoration. (Odd FA)
527 Terrestrial Plant Ecology (3:2:3). Pr. 301.
Application of principles of ecology to plants and plant communities. Experimental methods stressed in laboratory work. Two required weekend field trips. (Odd FA)
528 Microbial Ecology (3:3). Pr. 301 and either 280 or 481, or permission of instructor.
Emphasis on current areas of active research with reference to applied problems. (Even SP)
529 Aquatic Ecology (3:2:3). Pr. 301, CHE 114, or permission of instructor.
Interactions and adaptations of aquatic organisms in the major aquatic environments: fresh water, estuaries, and oceans. Optional field trips monitor local lakes, Carolina bay lakes, and the coastal Cape Fear area.
535 General Biochemistry (3:3). Pr. 277 or 355 or 392, or permission of instructor.
Chemical properties of major cellular compounds; biosynthesis, degradation, and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins, and hormones; energy metabolism; enzymatic catalysis. (FA)
538 Radiation Biology and Radiotracer Methods (4:3:3). Pr. 355 or 392, or permission of instructor.
Characteristics of ionizing radiation and use of radioisotopes in biological studies. Principles of radiation interaction; methods of detection of ionizing radiation; personnel protection. Laboratory work emphasizes liquid scintillation methods and processing of these data. (Odd SP)
545 General Biochemistry Laboratory (1:0:3). Pr. 535 (may be taken concurrently).
Experimental work designed to complement lecture material of 535. (FA)
549 Current Topics in Biology (1 to 3). Pr. permission of instructor.
Current topics in the biological sciences. Students complete individual readings or laboratory/field experiments under the supervision of faculty.
550 Macroevolution (3:3). Pr. 392 and a diversity course (322, 341, 354, or 370).
Lectures and discussions provide an introduction to evolution above the species level. Special attention given to constraints on evolutionary change and to theories integrating development and evolution.
552 Metamorphosis (3:3). Pr. an upper level course in physiology (e.g. 477), and a course in developmental biology (e.g. 453) or equivalent courses.
Readings, discussions, and oral presentations of current literature on metamorphosis in animals. Mechanisms controlling metamorphosis, evolution of complex life cycles, and adaptations to differing habitats. (Odd FA)
555 Vertebrate Reproduction (3:3). Pr. 464.
An advanced treatment of the diversity of vertebrate reproductive biology, with emphasis on structural, regulatory, behavioral, and evolutionary aspects. (Even SP)
560 Symbiosis (3:3). Pr. any three core courses, or permission of instructor.
Symbiotic interactions of living organisms from an evolutionary perspective. Metabolic, genetic, behavioral, and ecological adaptations which allow symbioses to be formed and maintained will be discussed. (Odd SP)
567 Chemical Senses (3:3). Pr. 355, and one of the following: BIO 277, 472, 477, 479, PSY 450, PSY 453, or permission of instructor.
Exploration and interactive discussion of chemosensory stimuli, chemosensory transduction mechanisms, neural processing of chemosensory information, and organismal consequences of chemoreception.
575 Neuroanatomical Techniques (3:2:4). Pr. 355 and one of the following: BIO 453, 472, 477, 479, PSY 450, PSY 453, or permission of instructor.
Practical experience with a variety of neuroanatomical procedures used to investigate the structural framework of nervous systems in invertebrate and vertebrate preparations. Students will learn to conduct independent projects. (Odd SP)
579 Environmental Physiology (3:3). Pr. 341, 355, or 370, plus 277 or 477.
Lectures, discussions, and student presentations on the physiology of animals as it is influenced by and is adapted to environmental conditions. (Odd FA)
583 Virology (3:3). Pr. 481 or permission of instructor; 392 and 535 recommended.
Selected topics in virology. Emphasis upon new trends in the study of animal, plant, and bacterial viruses at both molecular and cellular levels. (Even SP)
584 Immunology (3:3). Pr. 481 or permission of instructor.
Principles of immunology and serology covering both humoral and cellular aspects of immunobiology. Selected topics include: T and B cell, immunoglobulins, tolerance, hypersensitivity. (Odd SP)
594 Introduction to Biotechnology (4:3:4). Pr. 12 hours of biology or chemistry above 100 level, including BIO 392.
Basic principles and techniques of biotechnology. Includes molecular cloning, DNA sequencing, and hybridomas. Explores development of gene amplification, gene therapy, and DNA fingerprinting. (SP)
595 Advanced Genetics (3:3). Pr. 392.
Selected topics in genetics at an advanced level. Emphasis placed on comparative view of molecular mechanisms underlying animal and plant development. (Even SP)
596 Molecular Biological Approaches in Research (1:1). Pr. 392.
Use of novel molecular approaches to address current questions in the life sciences will be explored by analyzing recent research reports and learning the principles underlying these approaches.
Please refer to The Graduate School Bulletin for additional graduate level courses.